Saturday, March 19, 2016

Yorkshire Terrier

The Yorkshire Terrier (also called a "Yorkie") originated in Yorkshire (and the adjoining Lancashire), a region in northern England.In the mid-19th century, workers from Scotland came to Yorkshire in search of work and brought with them several different varieties of small terriers. Breeding of the Yorkshire Terrier was "principally accomplished by the people—mostly operatives in cotton and woolen mills—in the counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire. Details are scarce. Mrs. A. Foster is quoted as saying in 1886, "If we consider that the mill operatives who originated the breed...were nearly all ignorant men, unaccustomed to imparting information for public use, we may see some reason why reliable facts have not been easily attained.

The breed sprang from three different dogs, a male named Old Crab and a female named Kitty, and another female whose name is not known. The Paisley Terrier, a smaller version of the Skye Terrier that was bred for a beautiful long silky coat, also figured into the early dogs. Some authorities believed that the Maltese was used as well.They were all originally bred from Scotch Terriers (note: meaning dogs from Scotland, not today's Scottish Terrier) and shown as such...the name Yorkshire Terrier was given to them on account of their being improved so much in Yorkshire." Yorkshire Terriers were shown in a dog show category (class) at the time called "Rough and Broken-coated, Broken-haired Scotch and Yorkshire Terriers". Hugh Dalziel, writing in 1878, says that "the classification of these dogs at shows and in the Kennel Club Stud Book is confusing and absurd" in lumping together these different types.

In the early days of the breed, "almost anything in the shape of a Terrier having a long coat with blue on the body and fawn or silver coloured head and legs, with tail docked and ears trimmed, was received and admired as a Yorkshire Terrier But in the late 1860s, a popular Paisley type Yorkshire Terrier show dog named Huddersfield Ben, owned by a woman living in Yorkshire, Mary Ann Foster, was seen at dog shows throughout Great Britain, and defined the breed type for the Yorkshire Terrier.

Small in size but big in personality, the Yorkshire Terrier makes a feisty but loving companion. The most popular toy dog breed in the U.S., the "Yorkie" has won many fans with his devotion to his owners, his elegant looks, and his suitability to apartment living.
Yorkshire Terriers seem oblivious of their small size. They are very eager for adventure. This little dog is highly energetic, brave, loyal and clever. With owners who take the time to understand how to treat a small dog, the Yorkie is a wonderful companion! It is affectionate with its master, but if humans are not this dog's pack leader, it can become suspicious of strangers and aggressive to strange dogs and small animals. It can also become yappy, as the dog does their best to tell you what IT wants YOU to do. It has a true terrier heritage and needs someone who understands how to be its leader. Yorkies are often only recommended for older, considerate children, simply because they are so small, most people allow them to get away with behaviors no dog should display. This changes the dog’s temperament, as the dog starts to take over the house (Small Dog Syndrome).

Yorkies that become demanding and dependent, appearing to need a lot of human attention and/or developing jealous behaviors, snapping if surprised, frightened or over-teased, have owners who need to rethink how they are treating the dog. Owners who do not instinctually meet the dog’s needs may also find them to become overprotective and become neurotic. Yorkies are easy to train, although they can sometimes be stubborn if owners do not give the dog proper boundaries. They can be difficult to housebreak. The Yorkie is an excellent watchdog. When owners display pack leadership to the Yorkshire Terrier, it is very sweet and loving and can be trusted with children. The problems only arise when owners, because of the dog’s cute little size, allow it to take over the house. The human will not even realize it; however, know if you have any of the negative behaviors listed above, it's time to look into your pack leader skills. These are truly sweet little dogs that need owners who understand how to give them gentle leadership. If you own a Yorkie that does not display any of the negative behaviors, high-five for being a good pack leader!

Friday, March 18, 2016

Adopt a Pet

pet adoption

Every dog or cat not purchased from a pet store or backyard breeder improves the pet overpopulation problem created by irresponsibility and greed.

Adopting a dog or cat from a no-kill shelter can free up space for older or special needs pets that may not find new homes before the end of their natural lives.

There are plenty of animals to choose from at most shelters. They come in every age, shape, size, coat color and breed mix, and you can find purebreds at shelters as well. In fact, many breeds have their own rescue organizations, so if you're looking for a purebred, make sure to check both your local shelter and breed rescue organization.

Compared to the cost of purchasing a pet, adopting one from an animal shelter is relatively inexpensive. And if you get a slightly older dog or cat, there's a good chance he is already fully vaccinated and neutered.

Adopting an older pet allows you to skip over the time consuming, often frustrating puppy or kitten stage of development.

Adopting a mature dog or cat also takes the guesswork out of determining what your pet will look like as an adult – what size she'll grow to, the thickness and color of her coat and her basic temperament, for example.

Depending on his background, your older pet may already be housebroken or litter box trained and know basic obedience commands like come, sit, stay and down.

Most shelters and rescue organizations do assessments on every new pet taken in, to determine things like temperament, whether the pet has any aversion to other pets or people, whether he is housebroken, has had obedience training, etc. Many of these organizations also have resources to help pets with lack of training or behavioral issues. So when you adopt a pet from one of these organizations, you have a pretty good idea what to expect from your new dog or cat when you bring him home.

Many shelters and rescues also provide lots of new owner support in the form of materials about training, common behavior problems, nutrition, basic grooming and general care. In some cases there are even free hotlines you can call for questions on behavior, training and other concerns.

If you have kids, and especially if the new pet will belong to a child, adopting a shelter animal can open a young person's eyes to the plight of homeless pets. It can also help him learn compassion and responsibility, as well as how wonderful it feels to provide a forever home to a pet that might otherwise live life in a cage, or be euthanized.

An older adoptive pet can be the perfect companion for an older person. Many middle-aged and senior dogs and cats require less physical exertion and attention than younger animals.

An adopted pet can enrich your life in ways both big and small. The unconditional love and loyalty of a dog or cat can lift depression, ease loneliness, lower blood pressure, and give you a reason to get up in the morning. A kitty asleep in your lap feels warm and comforting. A dog that loves to walk or run outdoors can be just the incentive you need to start exercising regularly.

There are countless benefits to pet ownership, and when you know you saved your furry companion from an unpleasant fate, it makes the bond you share that much more meaningful.

Wednesday, November 4, 2015

Corgi - The Cardigan and the Pembroke see the differences

There are two breeds of Welsh corgis, the Cardigan and the Pembroke, each named for the county in Wales where it originated. The two breeds were recognized as one breed until 1934 when the Kennel Club recognized them as Pembroke and Cardigan. The differences between the two breeds include bone structure, body length, and size. Cardigans are the larger of the two breeds, with large rounded ears and a 12-inch-long foxy, flowing tail set in line with the body. Though the Cardigan is allowed more colours than the Pembroke, white should not predominate in its coat. 

corgi dog
The Cardigan Corgi

The Cardigan is a double-coated dog where the outer coat is dense, slightly harsh in texture, and of medium length. The dog's undercoat is short, soft, and thick. The breed stands about 12 inches (30 cm) at the shoulder, and weighs about 30 pounds (14 kg). The Cardigan is sturdy, mobile, alert, active, intelligent, steady, and neither shy nor aggressive.

pembroke corgi
Pembroke Corgi
Pembrokes feature pointed ears, and are somewhat smaller in stature than the Cardigan. Considered a practical dog, they are low-set, intelligent, strong and sturdy with stamina sufficient to work a day on the farm. The dog's head is fox-like and the tail short, which can be accomplished through breeding or docking. Historically, the Pembroke was a breed with a natural bob tail (a very short tail), and today, if the Pembroke has a tail at all, it is usually curly. Due to the advent of tail docking in dogs, the bob tail was not aggressively pursued, with breeders focusing instead on other characteristics, and the tail artificially shortened if need be. Given that some countries now ban docking, breeders are again attempting to select dogs with the genes for natural bob tails. Pembrokes stand from 10 inches (25 cm) to 12 inches (30 cm), and weigh approximately 28 pounds (13 kg).

Corgis are herding dogs, and perform their duties by nipping at the heels; the dog's low height allows it to avoid being kicked in the process. As herding dogs, corgis work livestock differently than other breeds. Instead of gathering the cattle the way a collie would, by running around the livestock, corgis drive the herd forward by nipping at their heels and working them from behind in semicircles. Seldom giving ground, if an animal should turn and charge, the corgi will bite its nose, causing it to turn and rejoin the herd. Although they specialize in herding cattle, corgis are also used to herd sheep and Welsh ponies. Welsh corgis also guarded children and were pets.
The corgi's origin is difficult to trace. There is mention in an 11th-century manuscript of a Welsh cattle dog, though there is no evidence about whether this is the corgi or an ancestor.

Welsh folklore says the corgi is the preferred mount of tiny, woodland fairy warriors. There is also a folk legend that says corgis were a gift from the woodland fairies, and that the breed's markings were left on its coat by fairy harnesses and saddles. Corgis often have a marking, a white stripe, that runs from the nose, through the eyes, and up into the forehead; this marking is referred to as their blaze.

The first recorded date for corgis appearing in the show ring in Wales is 1925.
The first show corgis were straight off the farm and gained only moderate attention. Subsequent breeding efforts to improve upon the dog's good looks were rewarded with increased popularity. For years the two breeds, the Cardigan Welsh corgi and the Pembroke Welsh corgi, were shown as two varieties of a single breed. Since the two Corgi breeds developed in the Welsh hill country, in areas only a few miles apart, there is evidence of crossbreeding between the two that accounts for the similarities.

The Cardigan is one of the oldest breeds of dog in Britain and has been employed for centuries by Welsh farmers to herd cattle, herding the owner's livestock to grazing areas and driving the neighbour's cattle out of gardens and open pastures. In early settlements these dogs were prized family members, helping hunt game and guarding children. The Pembroke is believed to have been introduced to Wales by Flemish weavers about 1100, though 920 is also a suggested date. Another possibility for this corgi's origin is breeding between Cardigans and the Swedish Vallhund, a spitz-type dog resembling the Pembroke and brought to Wales by Norse invaders.

In 1933 the first Welsh Corgis were brought to the United States by American breeder Mrs. Lewis Roesler, for her Merriedip Kennels in the Berkshire Hills of Massachusetts. She purchased a Pembroke bitch, Little Madam, at London's Paddington Station for twelve pounds at the time, followed by a mate named Captain William Lewis. The breed received recognition in America in 1934 with Mrs. Roesler's dogs being the first recorded Pembroke Corgis in America.

There has recently been a concern regarding the population size of the Welsh Corgi. Currently the Corgi is on Britain Kennel Club's watch list. In 2013, only 241 Welsh Corgis were registered. In order to stay off the breed vulnerable list 300 corgis would need to be registered; this is not expected.

The Cardigan tends to be a little hardier and has fewer documented hereditary health problems; however, both types of dog are genetically predisposed to encounter canine hip dysplasia, canine degenerative myelopathy, and progressive retinal atrophy more frequently than other breeds in this group. Persistent papillary membrane (PPM) is an eye disease that occurs in a number of Pembrokes. PPM occurs when pieces of developmental membrane remain, measuring from small spots to large connected threads. Cardigan Welsh corgis have a typical life expectancy between 12 and 14 years, and Pembroke Welsh corgis typically live between 12 and 15 years.

Corgis often compete in dog agility trials, obedience, showmanship, flyball, tracking, and herding events. Herding instincts and trainability can be measured at noncompetitive herding tests. Cardigan and Pembroke corgis exhibiting basic herding instincts can be trained to compete in herding trials.

Corgis are very active and energetic. They have a strong desire to please and should receive both physical and mental exercise regularly. They should be socialized early on because they tend to be shy and cautious with strangers and other dogs. They have a tendency to be very vocal, and for this reason make good alarm dogs. They are typically good with children, but due to their herding behavior they may nip at their heels during play, although this behavior can be trained out of the dog.Pembroke corgis are outgoing and playful as well as bold and protective while Cardigan corgis are more devoted and affectionate.

Outside Wales, Queen Elizabeth II has kept a number of corgis in her retinue, typically four and once as many as thirteen. Her first corgi was called Susan. She currently keeps two corgis who are about twelve years old.
Some portraits of Queen Elizabeth II include a corgi.
Corgis as characters were incorporated into the storybook fantasies Corgiville Fair, The Great Corgiville Kidnapping, and Corgiville Christmas of American author and illustrator Tasha Tudor. In 1961, the Walt Disney film, Little Dog Lost, brought the Pembroke Corgi widespread publicity. In the anime Cowboy Bebop, the main characters have a super-intelligent Pembroke Welsh corgi, Ein, on their ship.
The Top Shelf graphic novel Korgi plays on the folklore tradition of the corgi as a faerie draft animal. It features the "Mollies" (fairy-like beings) who live in close relationship with the land and their Korgi friends, who are based on and resemble the Pembroke Welsh corgi.

Monday, November 2, 2015

Considerations when buying toys for dogs and cats

While it may be tempting for some to get that gigantic chew bone or the brightly colored squeaky toy, some caution is advised before shopping for pets.

Know your pet recipient

As with a gift for a human, realize that each pet has their preferences (chewer, ball player, etc.) and some may have health conditions that warrant special attention when deciding on a gift.
Food allergies are common in pets, so tuna treats are not the gift for the fish-allergic feline.
Some pets have special dietary needs. Fatty or sugary treats are not appropriate for the diabetic or overweight pet.
Whenever buying food or treat gifts for animals that are on a special diet or allergic to certain foods, remember to check the labels carefully - even when labeled as "beef" or "chicken" there are often other fillers, such as corn or fish, that may cause problems for sensitive pets. (See Unsafe Toys)

Toys to Avoid

Toys that resemble common items

Caution is advised when purchasing toys that are stuffed animals or resemble "regular" items such as shoes. Pets may not differentiate between their toys and human toys (or shoes). This is especially important in a house with small children - stuffed animals abound and the shoes are about the same size as the 'toy' ones. (See Toys are not a Luxury)

Dyes and preservatives

Pets don't care what color it is, the colors added to treats and chews are for the people. (Think of the stuff dogs eat in the yard.) In addition to not being healthful, dyes may stain bedding and carpet where your pet is consuming the treat.

Flimsy construction and dangerous materials

Thin rubber squeak toys and Mylar ribbon cat toys are colorful and fun, but left unsupervised, a pet may chew and consume parts of these toys, with potentially very serious consequences.

String Alert

Given the chance, many cats will continue to consume a ribbon or string (tree tinsel, gift wrap, or cat 'fishing pole' type toys). Once consumed, the ribbon will bunch up in the intestines and can be fatal. This condition is referred to as a linear foreign body, and veterinary attention is required immediately. These toys are OK with supervision, but after playing, the ribbon toy should be placed in closed area, such as a closet.

Ingestible Toys Not Always Digestible

Rubber balls and chew toys can also have serious consequences when consumed. If large enough pieces are swallowed, they can cause a intestinal foreign body obstruction, also potentially life-threatening. Smooth objects (balls, coins, marbles) and hard rubber toys may be a cause of intestinal obstruction and often necessitate surgical removal.
I have removed a rubber rat head from a cat's intestine, so cats can be victims of dietary indiscretion as well as dogs. (When the owner saw the toy rat head, chewed off of the toy rat body, she exclaimed that it had been kitty's favorite toy.)

Favorite Pet Gifts


I love the Kong Dog Toy. They offer a wide variety of sizes, shapes and "chewing strengths" - be sure to purchase a toy that is appropriate for the dog. Kong also makes cat toys now too, that are favorites of my cats.


My felines love a good catnip treat. It is important to note that not all cats enjoy catnip - approximately 30% of them do not have the necessary receptors to 'experience' the catnip, so some cats could care less about this as a gift. Catnip toys come in a variety of shapes and sizes. My cats love them!
Another good choice for cats during the cold winter months is a nice pet snuggler bed.

Tuesday, October 20, 2015

Angora Rabbit

The Angora rabbit (Turkish: Ankara tavşanı) is a variety of domestic rabbit bred for its long, soft wool. The Angora is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, originating in Ankara (historically known as Angora), present day Turkey, along with the Angora cat and Angora goat. The rabbits were popular pets with French royalty in the mid-18th century, and spread to other parts of Europe by the end of the century. They first appeared in the United States in the early 20th century. They are bred largely for their long Angora wool, which may be removed by shearing, combing, or plucking. There are many individual breeds of Angora rabbits, four of which are recognized by American Rabbit Breeders' Association (ARBA); they are English, French, Giant, and Satin. Other breeds include German, Chinese, Swiss, Finnish, Korean, and St. Lucian.

Angora Basics

Angora is a luxury fiber with many special qualities. Lustrous, soft, and seven times warmer than sheep’s wool, these fibers have an inner structure of air an cell that give Angora yarn and garments a thermal quality. In addition, the fibers “bloom” or fluff up as garments are worn and cared for which increases their warmth and elegant appearance.
An Angora Rabbit is a fiber producing animal. The wool is plucked, combed, or clipped and spun into a luxurious yam. This does not harm the rabbit; the wool is ready to shed and removing it will help keep the rabbit in good condition.

The following are some common questions asked by beginning rabbit owners.

What type of housing do I need? 

An all-wire cage is best for an Angora rabbit because this keeps him off the wet and soiled bedding. The sides of the cages should be made of2" x I" wire, and the floor should be made of 1/2" x 1 " wire. A 30"x30" cage is an ideal size. He also needs a cover to protect him from the rain, snow, and drafts, and to keep him shaded in the summer. 
Does the rabbit get cold outside? 
Angoras are very hardy and do well in cold weather. His coat needs to be kept well groomed and free of matts (tangled wool) because matted wool does not insulate him from the cold. A piece of plastic or plywood on three sides of his cage will protect him from wind and drafts in the winter. On the coldest nights, you can throw a blanket over the cage for added protection. 

What about hot summer weather? 

Rabbits do suffer from the heat. A well ventilated, shaded rabbitry will help. On those really unbearable days, place a plastic 2-liter soda bottle which has been filled with water and frozen in the rabbit's cage for him to lie against. 

What does the rabbit eat? 

Angoras eat from 4-8 ounces of pellets daily, depending on their mature weight. A handful of hay is important for fiber production. About 1 tablespoon of sunflower seeds is a good daily supplement and the seed's oil helps the rabbit's digestion. Rabbits must have fresh water at all times. 
How much fiber will an Angora produce? 
English & French Angoras yield 10-16 ounces of wool per year; however Giants & Germans produce up to 28 - 40 ounces per year. Since Angora is lighter and warmer than sheep's wool, this will go a long way.


Whether you choose to use the fiber your Angora produces or not, the rabbit's wool must be removed when it is shedding. This will help keep your rabbit healthy. 

Do I need special tools? 

Dog grooming equipment is commonly used to groom Angora rabbits. A steel toothed comb, a bulb-tipped brush, a slicker brush, and a pair of scissors are handy tools. 

How often do I groom the rabbit? 

Grooming your animal once a week should keep him in good condition until he is ready to molt, but more frequent attention and handling will help you both become accustomed to one another.

How do I groom the rabbit? 

To maintain an Angora that is not molting, either put the rabbit on your lap or on a table. The purpose of this grooming session is to comb through the wool over the entire animal. Pay particular attention to areas that rub against one another such as the base of the tail or behind the ears. Be sure to brush his legs and belly. 

How do I remove the matts? 

If the matt can be pulled apart with your fingers, the wool is "webbed" and may be gently combed out. If the matt seems like a solid mass of wool, then the kindest way to remove it is simply cut it off. Feel for the rabbit's skin first, and watch out for it's tail; it's longer than you may think. 
How often does the rabbit shed? 
Generally, a rabbit will need to be plucked every two to three months. 

How do I know when to pluck the rabbit? 

Your rabbit is ready to pluck when you see loose wool on the cage or trailing off his back. 
How do I pluck the rabbit? 
Go over the rabbit with a comb or bulb-tipped brush. This helps loosen the wool. Gently pull out the loose wool, keeping your fingers toward the tip of the wool to catch only the longest coat. You may want to hold the skin with your other hand to reduce stress. If your rabbit seems stressed during or after plucking, next time try to give him a half of a baby aspirin 30 minutes before plucking. 

How do I store the wool? 

A plastic box, shoe box, or cookie tin will keep the fiber from getting tangled or packed down. Put a moth ball in the box to discourage insects.

What about the toenails? 

Your rabbit's toenails should be clipped monthly. A pair of dog clippers may be used. Like a dog, the living part of the rabbit's nail extends into the nail, so be careful not to cut into this or your rabbit may bleed. You may wish to examine the rabbit's nail with a light behind it so you can see where the dark vein extends into the nail.

Woll Block

Wool block is a mass of wool caught in the rabbit's digestive system, similar to a fur ball in a cat. The rabbit ingests the wool when grooming himself. He cannot regurgitate the wool like a cat does, and the blockage gives the rabbit a full feeling, so he does not eat. Wool block can be fatal.

What are the symptoms of wool block? 

Your rabbit may begin to excrete smaller or misshapen dropping and may not finish his food or water. Ha may pass no droppings at all.

How do I treat a case of wool block? 

Immediately pluck or shear the rabbit. Withdraw your rabbit's pellets and feed only rolled oats or hay. Pellets only add to the blockage at this point. Always provide water. You may administer anyone of the following: 5 papaya enzyme pills (the enzyme in the pill breaks down the wool and helps the wool pass through the digestive tract).These pills are found in the vitamin section of the pharmacy or a health food store. You can also administer a tablespoon of fur ball remedy (such as Femalt), or a fresh pineapple (pineapples also contain the necessary enzyme). If the blockage is large, you may have to continue treatment over several days. After the rabbit passes the blockage, resume his pelleted food slowly. 
How can I prevent wool block? 
Keeping you rabbit in good condition with no loose, over ripe wool will help him ingest as little wool as possible when he is grooming himself. Many Angora rabbit owners give papaya/pineapple enzyme to their rabbits once a week. Other preventatives include a weekly dose of Femalt. You may also want to treat your rabbit to fresh pineapple. 

Breeds of Angora Rabbits

There are four recognized breeds of Angora rabbits: English, French, Satin & Giant plus the more recently imported German Angora. The breeder from whom you purchased your rabbit should provide you with information about the Angora you own.

Helpfull Hints

-To remove wool build up on your rabbit's cage, use a propane torch. Be sure to remove your rabbit first and keep water handy. You can also use a long-handled bathroom brush to scrub the wool off the wire. 

-Calcium present in the urine may build up on the wire where your rabbit urinate. A vinegar solution and a wire brush help dissolve and remove this buildup.
-If your rabbit develops static while being groomed, rub your hands or your rabbit with a fabric softener sheet.
-Your rabbit needs to gnaw to prevent his teeth from growing too long. You can give him a block of hard wood to chew (not plywood which contains formaldehyde).
-Be consistent with your rabbit; he'll know what to expect.
-Don't allow young children to play with your rabbit without supervision.
-Use your rabbit's dropping in your garden; your tomatoes will thank you.

Wednesday, October 14, 2015

How Cats Love

Cat Purrs

Cats Love with Purrs. Her purrs can mean a variety of things, from delight to expressions of concern. And kitty purrs range from soft and subtle to Mack-truck loud. When your cat purrs in your presence, you can be sure she’s expressing her love for you.

Cat Rolling

Cats Love with Rolling. When kitty throws himself on the ground at your feet, and rolls around, consider this a loving greeting and a solicitation for attention. Presenting the tummy in this fashion places the cat in a vulnerable posture. So cats generally reserve the rolling around for people they truly love.

Cat Bunting

Cats Love with Bunting. When a cat cheek-rubs you, head-bumps your face, or pushes against you, he leaves his scented signature. These behaviors, termed bunting, are expressions of affection cats display to other cats, dogs-and their most favorite people.

Cat Scratching

Cats Love with Scratching. Just as with the spraying, cat scratching leaves both scented and visual marks of ownership. Pay attention to where your cat scratches the most. The areas most important to kitty often are related to those places associated with the owner, like a favorite chair where you sit.

Cat Kneading

Cats Love with Kneading. Kneading behaviors—front paw treading on soft surfaces—hearken back to kittenhood. Kitten paws knead against the mother cat’s breasts to induce milk to be released. Adult cats continue the behavior when they’re feeling most relaxed and content and loved, and that’s often when being petted on the owner’s lap. Kneading is an obvious expression of adoration.

Cat Gifting

Cats Love with Gifting. Mighty hunter cats that catch everything from toys to bugs, mice or frogs, often share the bounty with those they love. Kitties who present you with this bounty deserve praise. They wouldn’t bring these special gifts if they didn’t love you.

Cat Playing

Cats Love with Playing. Kittens play out of pure enjoyment, and many never outgrow playtime. Some cats may actually control the interaction of petting by moving just out of reach—so YOU must go to THEM. Their most favorite playmate typically is a trusted, beloved companion.

Cat Sleeping

Cats Love with Sleeping. As sleep champs, felines typically sleep up to 16 hours a day. Because they are most vulnerable during sleep, the place your cat chooses to snooze must be a secure and trusted location. There is no greater loving compliment than a cat choosing your lap for a favorite sleep spot.

Cat Eyes

Cats Love with their Eyes. A kitty’s eyes are proportionately very large—if human’s eyes were the same proportion, our eyes would be eight inches across! As such, cat eyes are important assets for survival, yet extremely vulnerable. Cats that place their faces and wide open eyes near a human express great trust and love.

Cat Tails

Cats Love with their Tails. In a similar fashion, the “elevator butt” pose invites you to give special attention. Simply scratch her above the tail. Cats also signal their love when they approach you with the tail held straight up, and the end slightly tipped over. Kittens use this to greet their mother—and adult cats continue to treat their favorite humans like a beloved mom, with tails flagged high in respect.

Cat Meowing

Cats Love with Meowing. Cats rarely meow at other cats. Kitty uses these vocalizations specifically to interact with her people. Do you make a point to talk with those you dislike? Neither do cats! Even when kitty pesters you with lots of meows, she’s interacting with you out of love.

Cat Grooming

Cats Love with Grooming. Cats spend an enormous amount of time self-grooming. They also groom each other, but shared grooming behaviors only happen between friendly cats. Kitties that groom their human by licking your skin or hair, or even nibbling or sucking on your clothing, indicates great affection. This spreads familiar scent and helps mark you as an important part of her family group.

Cat Spraying

Cats Love with Spraying. Say it ain’t so! But it’s true—if your cat has decided to baptize your bed or other belongings with urine, you should consider it a back-handed compliment. Cats use their own scent to calm themselves down. Kitties feeling upset over separation anxiety or other issues often target areas that smell the most like their beloved owners…such as the bed.

Cat Butts

Cats Love with their Butts. This is another “back handed compliment” that cats offer to only their most trusted, beloved people. Because kitties identify each other by scent, butt-sniffing is the equivalent to a very personal hand shake. When your cat jumps on your lap and presents her tail in your face, the invitation is obvious—not that you need to sniff.

Monday, October 12, 2015



The Pug is a small, stocky, square, thickset dog. The round head is massive with a short, blunt, square-shaped muzzle. Moles on the cheeks are considered beauty spots. The teeth meet in a slight undershot bite. The very large, prominent eyes are dark. The small, thin ears are either rose or button shaped. The face has large, deep wrinkles. The high-set tail is curled over the back and a double curl is preferred in the show ring. Dewclaws are usually removed. The short coat is soft, fine and smooth. Coat colors come in apricot, fawn, black and silver.
The Pug's comical face, with deep wrinkles around big, dark eyes and a flat round face, can't help but make you smile. It is believed that the Pug's name comes from the Latin word for "fist" because his face resembles a human fist.
Pugs are clowns at heart, but they carry themselves with dignity. Pugs are playful dogs, ready and able for games, but they are also lovers, and must be close to their humans. Pugs love to be the center of attention, and are heartsick if ignored.

black pug
Pugs are square and thickset, usually weighing no more than 20 pounds. Their heads are large and round, with large, round eyes. They have deep and distinct wrinkles on their faces. Legend has it that the Chinese, who mastered the breeding of this dog, prized these wrinkles because they resembled good luck symbols in their language. Especially prized were dogs with wrinkles that seemed to form the letters for the word "prince" in Chinese.
The moles on a Pug's cheeks are called "beauty spots." His muzzle or mask is black, with a clearly defined "thumb mark" on the forehead and a black trace down the center of the back. His ears are smooth, black and velvety. He has a characteristic undershot jaw (the lower teeth extend slightly beyond the upper teeth) and a tightly curled tail.


Coat care for the Pug is minimal, requiring only occasional brushing to remove the dog's dead hair. Meanwhile, regular cleaning and drying is necessary to prevent skin infections, especially in the dog's facial wrinkles.
As far as exercise requirements, the Pug's needs can be met daily with a moderate leash-led walk or an energetic game. Sensitive to humidity and heat, the Pug should be kept indoors. The breed is also prone to snoring and wheezing because of their flat, small muzzles.

Physical Chacacteristics

The Pug’s attentive and soft expression is its distinguishing feature. Its coat, which is fawn and black in color, is short, fine, and smooth. A compact and square-proportioned dog, the Pug moves with a jaunty and strong gait; its hindquarters roll slightly. The Pug also has clearly defined black markings on its muzzle, ears, cheeks and forehead, which has deep and huge wrinkles.

Personality and Temperament

The Pug is a playful, confident, and friendly companion that magnificently combines comedy with dignity. It is usually pleasant and willing to please, but it can be headstrong and adamant at times. The breed is also known to frolic and flaunt about.


Pugs catch colds easily and are stressed by hot and cold weather. They are prone to allergies and the short muzzle contributes to chronic breathing problems, making the Pug tend to wheeze and snore. (Pugs suffer from poor ventilation.) Prone to skin problems. Prone to mast cell tumors. Prone to Pug Dog Encephalitis (PDE), an inflammation of the brain that strikes adolescent Pugs usually between the ages of 2 and 3. The cause is unknown.
They are not the easiest whelpers. Dams usually have to have cesarean sections due to the size of the pups’ heads.
There is a chance of Keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) and ulcers on the cornea. Eyes are prone to

weeping and cherry eye. Do not overfeed a Pug, as they will eat more than is good for them, quickly becoming obese and living much shorter lives.
The Pug has a lifespan of 12 to 15 years and is prone to major health problems like Pug Dog Encephalitis (PDE) and canine hip dysplasia (CHD), as well as minor concerns like elongated palate, patellar luxation, stenotic nares, Legg-Perthes disease, entropion, keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), hemivertebra, obesity, and skin infections. Nerve degeneration, demodicosis, seizures, distichiasis, and allergies are occasionally seen in this breed of dog.

Other Breed Names

Chinese Pug Dog
Dutch Bulldog
Dutch Mastiff

History and Background

Multum in Parvo, meaning "a lot in a little," is the official motto of the Pug and sums up its description. The Pug has had various names throughout the years, including Mopshond in Holland, Chinese or Dutch Pug in England, and Mops in Germany. But the word “pug” is thought to have come from the Latin pugnus, meaning fist and attributed to its clenched fist-like head, or from the 18th-century marmoset "pug" monkey, which purportedly appeared quite similar to the dog.
Pugs originated in China, dating back to the Han dynasty (B.C. 206 to A.D. 200). Some historians believe they are related to the Tibetan Mastiff. They were prized by the Emperors of China and lived in luxurious accommodations, sometimes even being guarded by soldiers.
Pugs are one of three types of short-nosed dogs that are known to have been bred by the Chinese: the Lion dog, the Pekingese, and the Lo-sze, which was the ancient Pug. Some think that the famous "Foo Dogs" of China are representations of the ancient Pug. Evidence of Pug-like dogs has been found in ancient Tibet and Japan.

In the latter 1500s and early 1600s, China began trading with European countries. Reportedly, the first Pugs brought to Europe came with the Dutch traders, who named the breed Mopshond, a name still used today.
Although its exact ancestry is not known, many consider the Pug as one of the first breeds miniaturized in Asia. China is the earliest known source of the breed, where Buddhist monasteries of Tibet favored the Pug as a pet. The Chinese considered the Pug's facial wrinkles an important feature of the breed, referring to it as the "prince mark" because of its similarity to the Chinese figure for prince.
Brought to Holland by the Dutch East India Trading Company, a pug would become a pet to William I, the Prince of Orange in the mid 16th century. The Pug was also bestowed the position of the House of Orange official dog after one of its kind saved the life of William I by alarming him to the approach of an upcoming attack of Spaniards at Hermingny in 1572. Later, when William II landed at Torbay to be crowned King of England, his cortege included pugs, making the breed fashionable for generations.

By 1790, the Pug had made its way to France. Most notably used by Josephine, wife of Napoleon, her pug, "Fortune," carried secret messages under his collar to Napoleon while she was confined in Les Carmes prison.

In England, the Pug gained popularity during the Victorian era. These pugs sported cropped ears, which further enhanced their wrinkled expressions. And in 1885, the American Kennel Club would recognize the Pug. Since then, the Pug has become not only a popular show dog, but a wonderful family pet.

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